Unlike in classic hypercubes, M-hypercubes contain two types of nodes: state nodes, which are embedded on the “joints” of the M-hypercubes; and transmission nodes, which are embedded in the middle of the links between state nodes. In one arrangement, the researchers embedded two state nodes on each joint, both representing a single state. Each node can be turned on or off, with the transmission nodes having the ability to isolate parts of the cube from other parts when in the off state.Depending on the number of states required by an operation, the M-hypercube can be expanded by adding extra dimensions (which contain more nodes) or constricted by reducing its dimensions. For example, if only four states are required, the logic architecture would be a 2-D hypercube (a square), which has four state nodes. In general, the number of state nodes in a hypercube is 2m, with m being the M-hypercube’s dimensionality.“We might construct M-hypercubes of dimensions greater than three in three-dimensional space if we allow the communication linkages at the nodes of M-hypercubes to not be mutually perpendicular,” Lee explained. For logic operations that require many states, the researchers propose a method that could reduce the dimensions of the M-hypercube by essentially decomposing the hypercube into two lower-dimensional M-hypercubes, connected in parallel. If needed, these two M-hypercubes could themselves be decomposed into still less complex M-hypercubes, reducing the number of state nodes required per state. In another arrangement, Lee and Hook combined an M-hypercube with an N-hypercube, resulting in what they call an “MN-cell.” Due to its versatility, the device could serve as a building block for designing sequential nano logic gates of any size and complexity.More information: Lee, Samuel C. and Loyd R. Hook IV. “Logic and Computer Design in Nanospace.” IEEE Transactions on Computers, TC-0156-0406. To be published.Copyright 2008 PhysOrg.com. All rights reserved. This material may not be published, broadcast, rewritten or redistributed in whole or part without the express written permission of PhysOrg.com. Hypercubes in two, three, four, and five dimensions. (Images from Wikipedia) Multi-dimensional structures called hypercubes may act as the building blocks for tomorrow’s nanocomputers – machines made of such tiny elements that they are dominated not by forces that we’re familiar with every day, but by quantum properties. Citation: Hypercubes Could Be Building Blocks of Nanocomputers (2008, April 1) retrieved 18 August 2019 from https://phys.org/news/2008-04-hypercubes-blocks-nanocomputers.html As Samuel Lee and Loyd Hook from the University of Oklahoma explain, microelectronic devices are continually getting smaller and faster, in accordance with Moore’s Law. Already, integrated circuits and transistors are reaching the nanometer scale, although they still operate based on the physical properties on the macro-scale. True nanoelectronics, the researchers explain, are not just scaled down microelectronics, but devices that will be dominated by quantum properties, and will therefore require new architectures and novel structures.“Compared to today’s microcomputers, the main advantages of future nanocomputers are higher circuit density, lower power consumption, faster computation speed and more parallel and distributed computing capabilities,” Lee told PhysOrg.com.For example, today’s integrated circuits process information in the form of a continual flow of electrons. Nano integrated circuits, however, may process individual electrons, reducing the scale and power consumption. Such circuits would require that nano logic devices be able to count single electrons, as well as the ability for parallel computing, reversibility, locality, and a three-dimensional architecture.To address these challenges, Lee and Hook have investigated hypercubes, which researchers have previously considered as elements of nanocomputers. In their study, which will be published in a future issue of IEEE Transactions on Computers, Lee and Hook propose a variant of the classic hypercube called the “M-hypercube” that could provide a higher-dimensional layout to support the three-dimensional integrated circuits in nanocomputers.The M-hypercube has a structure similar to a classic hypercube, which basically extends from a square to a cube to increasingly complex M-dimensional shapes. M-hypercubes (of any dimension) are composed of nodes and links. The nodes act as gates, receiving and passing electrons through, while the links act as the paths that electrons travel along. “The unique structure of hypercubes, including M-hypercubes, has been shown to be effective in parallel computing and communication networks and provides a unique ideal intrinsic structure which fulfills many of the needs of future nanocomputing systems,” Lee said. “These needs include massively parallel and distributed processing architecture with simple and robust communication linkages.” This document is subject to copyright. Apart from any fair dealing for the purpose of private study or research, no part may be reproduced without the written permission. The content is provided for information purposes only.
(PhysOrg.com) — Engineers at Panasonic will showcase their new reduced size methanol fuel cell at the Hydrogen Energy Advanced Technology Exhibition 2008 in Fukuoka, Kyushu, Japan. Japan’s most populated city will host the exhibit on October 22-24, 2008. Panasonic has been working on reducing the size and increasing the efficiency of its previously introduced fuel cell over the past eight-years. The new methanol fuel cell is about the size of a laptop battery. The fuel cell battery weighs approximately 11.29-ounces and can deliver an average of 10-watts of power with a maximum output of 20-watts. According to Panasonic, the new methanol fuel cell battery has the unique advantage of being able to run 20-hours utilizing 200cc methanol. When the fuel cell runs low on methanol a quick refueling takes a few minutes. Unlike lithium ion batteries, methanol fuel cells are viewed as more environmentally friendly. The only by-product is water and a slight amount of carbon dioxide. Panasonic does not have present plans to commercially distribute the methanol fuel cell for laptops and other electronic devices. Panasonic speculates that the new methanol fuel cell may be available in the commercial market by 2012. Recognizing the ever increasing need for “high accuracy fuel technology,” Panasonic believes the methanol fuel cell holds great promise for the commercial electronics market and will spend whatever time it takes to perfect the technology. Critics of the methanol fuel cell are concerned about the initial cost and maintenance. At this juncture in development, Panasonic has not stated what the cost will be for the methanol fuel cell. The concept of a battery with 20-hours of use and no hazardous by-products will definitely be taken into consideration when pricing it for market. Explore further Panasonic Fuel Cell Prototype for Mobile Devices. Image: Panasonic Panasonic Fuel Cell Prototype for Notebooks. Image: Panasonic NREL teams with industry to validate methanol fuel cell technology This document is subject to copyright. Apart from any fair dealing for the purpose of private study or research, no part may be reproduced without the written permission. The content is provided for information purposes only. Citation: Panasonic Engineers Introduce Methanol Fuel Cell Prototype (2008, October 22) retrieved 18 August 2019 from https://phys.org/news/2008-10-panasonic-methanol-fuel-cell-prototype.html
via i-Programmer Microsoft, PC makers to offer Azure cloud services Citation: Microsoft paper proposes using ‘cloud’ servers to heat homes (2011, July 26) retrieved 18 August 2019 from https://phys.org/news/2011-07-microsoft-paper-cloud-servers-homes.html (PhysOrg.com) — Microsoft has published a research paper that proposes installing servers used for cloud computing into homes and businesses, instead of in vast data centers. The idea being, that because such servers generate so much heat, why not use them to heat homes, instead of wasting even more energy by cooling the air in centralized locations. Explore further More information: © 2010 PhysOrg.com This document is subject to copyright. Apart from any fair dealing for the purpose of private study or research, no part may be reproduced without the written permission. The content is provided for information purposes only. The paper, “The Data Furnace: Heating Up with Cloud Computing “ published by Microsoft Research, in conjunction with Virginia University researchers, looks at the feasibility of selling “Data Furnaces” (DFs) to consumers, who would then benefit by having their winter heating bills reduced down to almost zero. The authors argue that the cost savings of doing so, for cloud computing companies, would be significant (they estimate from $280 to $324 a year per server.)The authors envision having DFs in the basements of homes all over the country, clustered around cites, of course, where the most demand for those servers exists. A customer would purchase a unit and have it installed in the basement, where it would heat the home, and could be used for other purposes as well, such as heating hot water or drying clothes. In such a small scale system, the author’s believe that an existing broadband connection could be used, thus no additional data transfer hardware or software would need to be installed. As part of their purchase, users would agree to replace filters and reset or turn serves on or off if and when needed. For users that live in northern parts of the country, such as around New York City or Chicago, cost savings could be dramatic. In the summer, the DF could either be turned off, or the heat vented outside.Larger systems with more CPUs could be installed in business buildings large and small, allowing for more computing power for the cloud company, and free or reduced heating bills for the hosts. If such a system were to be put in place, the authors argue that storage and computing power for cloud applications could increase without an increase in electrical demand (which they say was 3% of total US demand as of 2006) because the electricity used to run the DFs would be offset by the reduction in electricity used to normally heat the homes. They also point out that such a distributed system would result in faster access times for customers since the servers would be located near the customers.One issue not addressed in the paper is the variable throughput that users of home-based broadband have become accustomed to; an issue that while annoying to customers, might cause havoc with cloud based applications. Presumably, if this were to occur, the server company would have to foot the bill for a dedicated T1 line, or something similar. Other issues that would have to be resolved would center around data security, maintenance and what to do during power outages.
ORNL finding has materials scientists entering new territory (Phys.org)—At its heart, photovoltaics research is about finding materials with specific properties that make them good at absorbing sunlight and converting it into electricity. The best photovoltaics materials are semiconductors that have optimal band gap values ranging from 1-1.6 eV, allowing them to absorb particular portions of the solar spectrum depending on the value of the band gap. In a new study, materials scientists have synthesized and characterized a new semiconductor material that consists of an atomically thin (0.7-nm) layer of selenium and molybdenum that has an ideal band gap for solar harvesting and optoelectronics applications, and also exhibits some unique behavior. More information: Sefaattin Tongay, et al. “Thermally driven crossover from indirect toward direct bandgap in 2D semiconductors: MoSe2 versus MoS2.” Nano Letters. DOI: 10.1021/nl302584w http://pubs.acs.org/doi/abs/10.1021/nl302584w Comparison of the photoluminescence of different thicknesses of molybdenum diselenide. The single-layer sample has the highest photoluminescence value due to its direct band gap. Image credit: Tongay, et al. ©2012 American Chemical Society Copyright 2012 Phys.org All rights reserved. This material may not be published, broadcast, rewritten or redistributed in whole or part without the express written permission of PhysOrg.com. MoSe2, like most other transition-metal chalcogenides, has an indirect band gap in bulk form and a direct band gap as a two-dimensional single layer. Typically, in order to transform the indirect band gap to a direct band gap, a single layer must be physically isolated from a piece of bulk material. Explore further In the new study, the researchers found that they could switch the indirect band gap in a few-layered piece of MoSe2 to a direct band gap simply by increasing the temperature. As the researchers explain, increasing the temperature to 100 °C (212 °F) causes the multiple layers of the material to thermally decouple from each other due to thermal expansion of the space between layers. Essentially, the multiple layers each act as individual layers with direct band gaps. Decoupling lifts the degeneracy so the material becomes more direct band and more luminescent.Since many transition-metal chalcogenides possess an indirect band gap in bulk form and become direct as a single layer, it might be expected that other materials could also have their band gaps switched by changing the temperature. However, when the scientists tested a similar material, molybdenum disulfide (MoS2), they found that, even though increasing the temperature expanded the interlayer distance as it did in MoSe2, its band gap remained indirect in the few-layer form, unlike in the case of MoSe2.This difference is due to MoSe2 having a smaller difference (about half) between the values of its indirect band gap and direct band gap compared with that of MoS2. A larger energy difference for MoS2 means that its band gap is far from degenerate and its layers cannot be thermally decoupled from the optical point of view; the only way to change the band gap to direct would be to physically isolate a single layer from the bulk.So far, it seems that MoSe2 is the only material that changes its band gap type due to a change in temperature. However, the researchers think that there are other two-dimensional materials with almost degenerate indirect and direct band gap values that may behave in a similar way.”MoSe2 is special in the sense that its indirect and direct band gap values are already close in value, and a small increase in temperature was enough to slightly decouple the layers from each other and push it towards the direct band gap regime,” said coauthor Sefaattin Tongay of the University of California, Berkeley.The ability to control the band gap of MoSe2, along with its attractive 1.5 eV direct band gap in single-layer form, makes the material appealing for applications including solar energy conversion in single-junction solar cells, LEDs, optoelectronic devices, and photoelectrochemical cells. MoSe2 membranes may also be used to functionalize the surface of other materials to form efficient solar harvesting structures.”Currently, we are designing functional two-dimensional semiconductors and scouting what these materials can offer,” Tongay said. “We want to find applications and explore new physics in reduced dimensions.” AFM image of a single-layer molybdenum diselenide flake. Image credit: Tongay, et al. ©2012 American Chemical Society Journal information: Nano Letters The researchers, a team from the University of California, Berkeley; MIT; and the Chinese Academy of Sciences, have published their study in a recent issue of Nano Letters.”Here, we have isolated single layers of molybdenum diselenide (MoSe2) and shown their promising band gap value of 1.5 eV for solar harvesting and possibly other optoelectronics applications,” coauthor Junqiao Wu, a professor at the University of California, Berkeley, told Phys.org. “According to the Shockley-Queisser limit for the theoretical maximum efficiency of solar cell semiconductors, semiconductors with band gaps between 1 and 1.6 eV have the greatest potential to form an efficient cell. This is because a wider band gap would be unable to absorb low-energy photons (and thus photocurrent would be low), and a narrower band gap would lose too many high-energy photons to heat (and thus photovoltage would be low). We are within this range in the single-layer limit.”In addition to its appealing band gap, MoSe2 is also attractive because of another unusual property: it has almost degenerate direct and indirect band gaps in the few-layer limit, i.e., the direct and indirect band gaps have almost the same energy in the few-layer limit. Although materials with both direct and indirect band gaps can absorb photons whose energy is near the band gap energy, materials with direct band gaps don’t allow photons to penetrate as far, which makes them better (and usually thinner) light absorbers than materials with indirect band gaps. Citation: New two-dimensional semiconductor has ideal band gap for solar harvesting (2012, November 2) retrieved 18 August 2019 from https://phys.org/news/2012-11-two-dimensional-semiconductor-ideal-band-gap.html This document is subject to copyright. Apart from any fair dealing for the purpose of private study or research, no part may be reproduced without the written permission. The content is provided for information purposes only.
More information: S. A. Price et al. How predation shaped fish: the impact of fin spines on body form evolution across teleosts, Proceedings of the Royal Society B: Biological Sciences (2015). DOI: 10.1098/rspb.2015.1428AbstractIt is well known that predators can induce morphological changes in some fish: individuals exposed to predation cues increase body depth and the length of spines. We hypothesize that these structures may evolve synergistically, as together, these traits will further enlarge the body dimensions of the fish that gape-limited predators must overcome. We therefore expect that the orientation of the spines will predict which body dimension increases in the presence of predators. Using phylogenetic comparative methods, we tested this prediction on the macroevolutionary scale across 347 teleost families, which display considerable variation in fin spines, body depth and width. Consistent with our predictions, we demonstrate that fin spines on the vertical plane (dorsal and anal fins) are associated with a deeper-bodied optimum. Lineages with spines on the horizontal plane (pectoral fins) are associated with a wider-bodied optimum. Optimal body dimensions across lineages without spines paralleling the body dimension match the allometric expectation. Additionally, lineages with longer spines have deeper and wider body dimensions. This evolutionary relationship between fin spines and body dimensions across teleosts reveals functional synergy between these two traits and a potential macroevolutionary signature of predation on the evolutionary dynamics of body shape. Mudskipper fish may offer clues about development of tongue in land animals This document is subject to copyright. Apart from any fair dealing for the purpose of private study or research, no part may be reproduced without the written permission. The content is provided for information purposes only. The phylogenetic regression between log10 standard length and log10 body depth for families that have dorsal- and anal-fin spines (blue), and those that do not (red). Silhouettes illustrate some of the extremes of body shape, starting at the bottom left and going anti-clockwise: Chaenopsidae, Moringuidae, Nemichthyidae, Alepisauridae, Bramidae, Caproidae, Ephippidae and Cichlidae, with Mullidae in the center. Credit: Proceedings of the Royal Society B: Biological Sciences (2015). DOI: 10.1098/rspb.2015.1428 On land, many predators are able to use their mouths to rip or tear pieces of food from a prey’s carcass, and in some cases to chew it before swallowing—in the water however, things are not always so easy—many fish that feed on other fish are gape limited, that is, they must swallow their prey whole as they are not able to nibble or bite off chunks. This notion caused the researchers to wonder if such prey might have responded to such threats by evolving in a way that would make them more difficult to swallow whole. To test their idea they took measurements of specimens held in museums from 347 families of fish, looking at body shape and size and also the location, shape and size of fins and spines.In analyzing their results (using phylogenetic comparative methods) and looking for correlations, they found that spines on anal and dorsal fins tended to be more associated with fish with deeper bodies, and that fish with spines on horizontal fins tended to be more associated with wider bodies. They also found that for fish without spines, the optimal body dimensions tended to match allometric expectation, and that fish with longer spines tended to have deeper and wider bodies.Put another way, the trio claim their idea has merit—many prey fish appear to have evolved in ways that make it more difficult for them to be swallowed in one gulp, whether by becoming wider bodied or by developing spines that extend from fins to increase body dimensions that make things difficult or awkward for those looking to eat them. Citation: Relationship found between predation and the shape of prey fish body and spines (2015, November 12) retrieved 18 August 2019 from https://phys.org/news/2015-11-relationship-predation-prey-fish-body.html Explore further Journal information: Proceedings of the Royal Society B (Phys.org)—A trio of researchers with the University of California’s Department of Evolution and Ecology has found a predictable relationship between the size of predator fish mouths and the shape and spine characteristics of prey fish. In their paper published in the journal Proceedings of the Royal Society B, Samantha Price, Sarah Friedman, and Peter Wainright describe how they tested an idea they had about prey fish evolution being tied to the size of the predator fish mouth and what they found as a result. © 2015 Phys.org
© 2019 Science X Network Poison dart frog brains can hold a mental map This document is subject to copyright. Apart from any fair dealing for the purpose of private study or research, no part may be reproduced without the written permission. The content is provided for information purposes only. Citation: Brain parts involved in parenting in frogs revealed (2019, July 25) retrieved 18 August 2019 from https://phys.org/news/2019-07-brain-involved-parenting-frogs-revealed.html More information: Eva K. Fischer et al. The neural basis of tadpole transport in poison frogs, Proceedings of the Royal Society B: Biological Sciences (2019). DOI: 10.1098/rspb.2019.1084 A team of researchers from Stanford University, Harvard University, Centro Jambatu de Investigación y Conservación de Anfibios and East Carolina University has isolated the brain regions involved in poison dart frog parenting. In their paper published in Proceedings of the Royal Society B, the group describes their study of three types of poison dart frogs and what they learned. Journal information: Proceedings of the Royal Society B The researchers began their study by noting that most frogs lay eggs and walk away, leaving their young to fend for themselves—but three particular types of poison dart frogs are different—they stick around and help their young survive. With one type, the mother cares for the young; with another, it is the male that does the job, and the parents of a third type work together. The researchers thought this intriguing characteristic might help them figure out which parts of the frog brain were involved in parental care-taking. They captured and killed 25 frogs while they were engaged in carrying their young from their hatching site on land to the water. The researchers assumed that brain regions involved in parental care would be lit up during this activity. The team immediately froze the brains to preserve their neural state, then looked at brain slices under a microscope.The researchers report that in all of the frogs caught mid-carry, the preoptic parts of their brains were lit up. Comparison with their mates and other frogs showed this was a unique situation. The researchers note that their finding was not a surprise, as preoptic parts of the brain firing during parental behavior has been observed in other vertebrates, including mammals. The researchers suggest that such similarities between vastly different types of creatures indicate that parenting behavior is likely quite ancient.The researchers note that the medial pallium in the frogs was also active. It is a region in the frog brain that is similar to the hippocampus in mammals, and is involved in memory processing. The researchers suggest the frogs were using memory maps to navigate the course between hatching sites on land to the nearest water source. The team plans to continue their research by testing to see if they can turn parental behavior on and off by stimulating brain regions. Credit: CC0 Public Domain Explore further
It’s one technique of cooking that completely brings out the flavour of a dish. Which explains why clay pot cooking isn’t limited to just one region on the map. Dating back to ancient Roman times, clay pot cooking is popular in Europe, Africa, southeast and east Asia. In India, everyone from Tamilians to Malayalis, Awadhis, Punjabis and Kashmiris, they all have their own form of the cooking technique. Typically used in the villages, this is done using traditional clay pots called Also Read – ‘Playing Jojo was emotionally exhausting’chattis to cook on slow fire for a few hours. The food inside cooks in its own juices. The juices are sealed inside the pot till the time it is completely dry and therefore, cooked! Food cooked in a clay pot is not just flavourful, but it is also low fat. So there, one more incentive. That is why when Zune in Hilton Janakpuri wanted to bring alive that magic in its Indian restaurant, we thought it should be worthwhile travelling all the way to Janakpuri to check out what they have managed to achieve. Also Read – Leslie doing new comedy special with Netflix‘Clay pot cooking is a technique of cooking food in an unglazed clay pot which has been soaked in water so as to release steam during the cooking process,’ says Mohd Irfan, Chef de cuisine. ‘Typically, an unglazed clay pot is submerged for 15 to 30 minutes to absorb water before cooking, then filled with the food and placed inside an oven. The food inside the clay pot loses little of its moisture because it is surrounded by steam, creating a tender, flavourful dish,’ he adds. At the restaurant, there was a wide variety of dishes to choose from, both vegetarian and non vegetarian. So one could pick and choose from traditional dishes like Haandi ki bhuni tangdi, Patthar ke palak kebab, Dal paneer ki tikki, Kachchi handi ka saag, Kachhi handi ka Ghee dum murg, Kachchi handi ka hara dhaniya gosht, Dum ki malika e dariya, Ghuti chana dal, Chooza biryani, Dum bhujiya and Pyaz dhaniya ki bhuni gobhi. For desserts, there was Haandi ki kheer and Haandi ka palak halwa. While the idea was interesting, we found some of the dishes to be a little unremarkable. Or may be it just gets better with time!DETAILAt: Zune, Hilton New Delhi, Janakpuri District Centre Complex Phone: 4123 412Meal for two: Rs 1,600 + taxes
The second edition of Dastkar’s Asia Bazaar was organised in the Capital in association with Delhi tourism that started off on 5 September at Nature Bazaar Venue. The bazaar featured craftspeople and crafts organisations from Pakistan, Nepal, Afghanistan, Maldives, Kyrgyzstan, Tajikistan, Uzbekistan, and their Indian counterparts to share and showcase talents, techniques and products. The event that ended up on 14 September brought together the common strands of centuries-old cultural and craft heritage. Also Read – ‘Playing Jojo was emotionally exhausting’The venture provides an opportunity for visiting delegates, customers and participants from across the borders, to learn about each others’ cultures and traditions and understand the variations of their skills being practiced in other countries. It also gives artisans an avenue to study fashion trends from across borders. It creates a bridge where they can interact and expand their ties with neighboring countries beyond business and can gauge market feedback. Also Read – Leslie doing new comedy special with NetflixThis year the bazaar included – Kilim woolen rugs from Afghanistan, hand-woven dhurries by traditional weavers from Telangana and Uttar Pradesh, craftswomen from Gujarat embroidering Kutchi and suf meeting their counterparts from Sind and Afghanistan, Kanthaand sujni embroidery linking India and Pakistan, weaving traditions from Nepal meeting those from Kotpad, Odisha, Kutch and Gujarat. Asia Bazaar also brought the nomadic carpets, felted wool home accessories and urbane silk Ikats and brocades craftspeople from Uzbekistan, Tajikistan and Kirgizstan, to complement the hand-knotted rugs and crewel embroidery from Kashmir, and applique from Gujarat and Karnataka. It also featured folk paintings from Madhya Pradesh,West Bengal and Rajasthan.
Tabula Rasa, the solo mixed media art exhibition by renowned artist, Shivani Pandey, was inaugurated on 18 November by Chief Guests Tine Staermose Director, Decent Work Team, South Asia and Country Office-India, International Labour Organization and Dr. Kalyan Kumar Chakravarty, Chairman, Lalit Kala Akademi, at the Palm Court Gallery, India Habitat Centre, in the Capital. Satish Upadhyaya, President, Delhi State, Bharatiya Janata Party accompanied by his wife Arti, later joined the ceremony and saw all the exhibits. Also Read – ‘Playing Jojo was emotionally exhausting’Speaking on the occasion, Staermose said, ‘A beautiful exhibition! What an honour to be your Chief Guest at this important day for you. Your curious and free spirit is so inspiring’. Chairman Lalit Kala Akedemi, Dr. Chakravarty also spoke about the inner journey of the soul, which was beautifully depicted by the artworks. He drew a parallel between the civilizations of the world and talked about the richness of Indian art and philosophy. Art and Satish Upadhyaya were delighted to express their sentiments, ‘Wonderful journey of the Artist, expressed in more wonderful art form!’ Also Read – Leslie doing new comedy special with NetflixThe artist Shivani Pandey, herself spoke about the importance of the Tabula Rasa, the blank state of mind that is so important to be reached, before the mind goes on a creative high.The theme and title of the exhibition, which was on up to 20 November is Tabula Rasa, for a new beginning! Tabula Rasa in Latin means a clear slate, and originates from the Roman tabula or wax tablet used for notes, which was blanked by heating the wax and then smoothening it, to give a tabula rasa. In Psychology, it relates to the theory that at birth the (human) mind is a ‘blank slate’ without rules for processing data, and that data is added and rules for processing are formed solely by one’s sensory experiences. And so in order to reach for his goals and desires, despite the setbacks that one has faced, one needs to clear his mind to reach a tabula rasa and start afresh. In this series, I am exhibiting pictures those describe the meaning of Tabula Rasa, ‘before it is reached’ and ‘after it is reached’ in the human mind.The artist, Shivani Pandey, is an international travel writer/ photographer having to credit published works in national and international magazines, much appreciated for their sensitivity of portrayal and depiction of intensity of life and emotion.
While non-book readers discover that it is an easier way to know the story, experience the plot whilst munching on popcorns and sipping fuzzy drinks; for book readers it is time for anxiety attacks. Haven’t you ever experienced the creeping fear that the book you have just finished reading, the one you loved till the last pages and you held the plot close to your heart, will one day be made into a terrible movie? As any avid book reader will probably know only a few of these book to film adaptations are able to arouse the same feelings as the book. Also Read – ‘Playing Jojo was emotionally exhausting’While the Harry Potter movies were passable (though, how could you leave out Peeves? or how can one mess up Voldemort’s death scene?), and movies like Gone with the Wind (1939) did reestablish my faith in cinema, but then something like The Mortal instruments: City of Bones (2013) made me curl up in bed and weep.With Hunger Games Mockingjay Part I just released, I am half dreading, half anticipating watching the movie. The first two films were pretty amazing, and one of the best thing about the film series is the casting. Jennifer Lawrence is extraordinary as Katniss Everdeen, the leading lady. The male leads are equally good and the film establishes the dystopia that the author Suzanne Collins wanted you to experience.It may be safe to say that the movie will not be disappointing considering the preceding two in the series and a fair review can be done only after one has watched the movie, the reader in me has her fingers crossed. Between The Covers is a weekly column on reading up and rating down
Hundreds were feared dead on Tuesday after a cruise ship capsized in Asia’s longest river Yangtze in central China as rescuers braved strong winds and downpour to scan its hull for survivors among the 458 on board, mostly elderly, in one of the country’s worst shipping tragedies. Twenty-four hours after the ill-fated Eastern Star overturned due to a freak cyclone, merely five bodies have been retrieved while 15 people were rescued.The four-storey ship – bound for Chongqing Municipality, southwest China, from the eastern Chinese city Nanjing – sank after being caught in a cyclone at around 9:28 pm yesterday on the Jianli section of the Yangtze River in Hubei Province. The vessel sank “within one or two minutes” of being caught in bad weather in Jianli, according to the ship’s captain and chief engineer who survived the incident last night. Both have been arrested for questioning.Hopes were rekindled when over 140 divers scoured through the murky waters of the 6,300 km-long Yangtze River.
The philosophy, life and cultural influences of the Parsis in India, whose Zoroastrianism faith is considered among the world’s oldest religions dating back around 3,500 years in Central Asia, is now being showcased in a special exhibit in the national Capital.The showcase ‘Threads of Continuity: Zoroastrianism Life and Culture,’ inaugurated by Minority Affairs Minister Najma Heptulla at the Indira Gandhi National Centre for the Arts on Monday put the spotlight on the micro minority community in the country with Parsi life in Gujarat and the Deccan displayed in detail. Also Read – ‘Playing Jojo was emotionally exhausting’Wishing the community on Navroz, a New Year festival that marks thanksgiving and celebration of nature, Heptulla thanked them for making her an “honorary Parsi.” She also used the occasion to highlight the steps taken by her ministry for the cause of all the minority communities in India.Meanwhile, the exhibition, curated by Shernaz Cama, Dadi Pudumjee, Ashdeen Lilaowala and Kritika Mudgal, attempts to explain Zoroastrian philosophy, whose essence is a sacred thread that signifies a continuity linking all creation. “The whole concept of ethical belief of humility with excellence was spoken about, in the Bronze Age, by a great soul Zarathpustra. He raised several questions in his songs about why good people suffer, how is that there is evil in this world and what does one do to make others happy,” Shernaz Cama, director of Parzor Foundation, a Delhi-based community organisation mandated by UNESCO to preserve Parsi-Zoroastrian heritage said. Also Read – Leslie doing new comedy special with Netflix“Such existential questions trouble us even today and we keep seeking answers to them. This exhibition and two-month long programme will help us understand the answers to these questions,” Cama said. The exhibition is a part of ‘Everlasting Flame International Programme,’ organised by Minority Affairs Ministry under their Hamari Dharohar (Our Heritage) a collaboration with Culture Ministry and the Parzor Foundation which is set to continue here till May 27. Among the exhibits on display are rare artefacts and manuscripts from institutions, individuals and museums from across the world including Iran, Russia and Uzbekistan besides installations and video recordings representing the practices of the faith.Fine shawls with exquisite embroideries and adaptations of various lifestyle rituals like the use of vermilion for auspicious occasions can be seen in the show.The Parsi-Zoroastrians are less than 0.01 per cent of the population in India. A feast of traditional Parsi dishes was also spread out in the famous ‘Lagan-nu-Bhonu’ at the event.
Filmmaker Satyajit Ray captured on camera on the sets of Bengali film Ghare Baire is among a slew of portraits assembled by ace photographer Raghu Rai in his new book aptly titled ‘People’.Ray’s photograph in black and white considered to be a masterpiece has a story behind it, reveals Rai. “He lay down on the same bed, smoking his pipe, on which his heroine was sitting and I took some pictures from the front. Then I moved towards the other side from where you could only see his back and I realized that the lighting was very dramatic. You could see the adjoining room through the door and there were spectacular shadows falling on the wall,” says the photographer. Also Read – Add new books to your shelfThe images in the book, published by Aleph, reveals moments and people in both candid and staged and describe Rai’s inexplicable sense to capture the truth of the person through his lens.Apart from portraits of film personalities and celebrities captured in shining black and white in their most candid expressions, the book also contains a compilation of Rai’s best photographs of people. The pictures, he says, were taken for specific magazines or newspaper assignments and as Rai says have happened as “a result of spontaneous magic.” “When I take a person’s portrait, I am trying to capture the aura of that person. I am trying to get the truth of that person to emerge in the photographs,” he says. “My portraits of musicians in the book looked strong because they all were a candid study of them. MS Subbulakshmi’s portrait was taken when she was performing. Also Read – Over 2 hours screen time daily will make your kids impulsiveBismillah Khan’s portrait was taken when he was in jugalbandi with Vilayat Khan,” Rai writes. The photographer who has won many international as well as national accolades including the Padma Shri, describes images of people in black and white vividly and refers to shoot pictures in the same shades.“I prefer to take portraits in black and white. Colour makes for very average portraits. In black and white, the grey tones, highlights and contrasts that you are able to create enable you to bring out the strength of the expression in a person’s eyes or face,” he writes. Rai describes his interest to click ordinary people and mentions some of the public figures which he enjoyed photographing. “I liked taking pictures of Indira Gandhi early on in her career, later as a result of growing security concerns; she became a bit distant and photographing her wasn’t as much fun,” he says.“I suppose my all time favorite among people I have shot is Dalai Lama. I have never met God but I have no hesitation in saying that Christ/Buddha/Nanak must have been like Dalai Lama,” Rai writes while describing his passion to shoot the Dalai Lama. Rai does not detest the new “selfie” phenomenon, but describes it as only mere “fun”. “Today, unfortunately, the age of the selfie has destroyed the art of portrait photography,” he writes.“These cell phones have wide angle lens which distort perspective. In order to take a good portrait you have to use a lens that does not distort perspective. Selfies are fun, but as portraits they are just silly.” The images in the book stamp themselves immediately on the viewer’s gaze. Rai wraps up his compilation of portraits asking the viewer to look for the essence of whichever person has been photographed, rich or poor, famous or anonymous.
Kolkata: In a major shuffle in the IPS cadres, the state government has appointed Additional Director General (ADG) of West Bengal Police (law and order) Anuj Sharma as the new Kolkata Police Commissioner, replacing Rajeev Kumar, a government notification said on Tuesday. Kumar, who had completed three years in office as the Kolkata police chief, was posted as the ADG of the Criminal Investigation Department (CID), it added. The outgoing police commissioner was recently in the eye of a storm over his alleged role in tampering with the evidence in the Saradha chit fund case. Also Read – Bose & Gandhi: More similar than apart, says Sugata Bose Kumar was questioned by the Central Bureau of Investigation (CBI) in Shillong for five days after the Supreme Court directed him to appear before the agency and cooperate in the investigation of chit fund cases. The notification also said Sharma had assumed his new responsibilities. Siddh Nath Gupta, who was the ADG (IB), was made the ADG (law and order). According to a rule of the Election Commission (EC), any IPS or IAS officer, who has completed three years of service in a post, should be transferred before an impending election.
Forty-two photographs by six French lensemen that provide the onlookers an opportunity to delve into the role of waste workers across the world are currently on display at Mandi House Metro Station here. These photographs constitute the show titled “The City of Waste,” which is part of the larger “Urban Societies and Waste” project and will entice the passengers on one of the capital’s most crowded Metro stations till June 30. Conceptualised and organised by Rémi de Bercegol and Christine Ithurbide, the exhibition that aims to understand the role of waste workers in societies across the world, also presents photographs by Melanie Rateau, Adeline Pierrat, Pascal Garret and Benedicte Florin. Also Read – Add new books to your shelfFrom Paris to Cairo and Mexico to Delhi, the photographs on display document the conditions waste workers live and work in – open landfills, waste containers and public spaces from where they collect waste, as well as garbage dumps, warehouse, factories, markets and recycling workshops, where waste is reclassified and transformed into a profitable resource. They not only show the clothes that protect their bodies – sometimes rags and even plastic bags – but also the gloves and uniforms worn by those whose work is better recognised. Also Read – Over 2 hours screen time daily will make your kids impulsiveThe techniques and tools they use – baskets, hooks, chariots and carts, among others – the materials they extract and transform – plastic, cardboard, metal, glass and fabric – also reveals the diversity of the practices and the ingenuity the recyclers bring to their work.”Waste represents a serious challenge for contemporary societies as it puts into question the unsustainability of our lifestyles which generate increasing quantities of refuse. Given the contamination associated with it and the disorder it evokes, garbage has long been concealed from view,” said Rémi de Bercegol. He further highlighted that today waste is the object of reclassification processes that serve to extract the recoverable material before it is permanently scrapped. “Thanks to its composition -–plastics, metals, paper, etc. – waste constitutes a valuable resource,” he added. Contrary to the common representation of waste workers often shown in deleterious working and living conditions, this exhibition aims to portray the world of “the city of waste” in a different light, wherein waste workers are freed from the stigma attached to waste. These photographs were first displayed in Paris as part of the “La mise en image du rebut” (The Image of Waste) exhibition that later travelled to numerous cities. “The City of Waste” is an adaptation of this exhibition presented for the first time in India. The project is a part of Habitat Photosphere, India Habitat Centre’s year-long photography festival on sustainable development, curated by Alka Pande. Mandi House Metro station is fast emerging as hotspot for arts in public spaces.
The turmoil of Dealey Plaza. First Lady Jacqueline Kennedy, still wearing her blood-stained pink Chanel suit, standing beside Lyndon Johnson on Air Force One, as he took the oath of office. A three-year-old boy saluting his father’s flag-draped casket as it left St. Matthew’s Cathedral.So much of the assassination of President John Fitzgerald Kennedy, in November of 1963, has been indelibly etched in the minds of the American people.Picture of President Kennedy in the limousine in Dallas, Texas, on Main Street, minutes before the assassination. Also in the presidential limousine are Jackie Kennedy, Texas Governor John Connally, and his wife, Nellie.But one of the most heart-wrenching moments of those fateful few days happened in the upstairs family quarters of the White House, far from public view.It was there that the Kennedy children, Caroline, then almost six, and her little brother John Jr., age three, learned that the father they so adored had died.President Kennedy’s family leaving his funeral at the U.S. Capitol BuildingMany believe that Jacqueline Kennedy broke the news to her two children, shortly after flying back to the White House from Dallas. (The 2016 movie, Jackie, starring Natalie Portman, would perpetuate this myth.)In reality, the task fell to the children’s beloved nanny, Maud Shaw, at the request of the First Lady’s mother, Janet Auchincloss. Believing that her daughter was too distraught — and had endured too much — to face her children, she reached out to the nurse.The Kennedys and the Connallys in the presidential limousine moments before the assassination.According to William Manchester in his book The Death of a President, a 1967 account of the Kennedy assassination and the days that followed, Miss Shaw was speechless. “Please, no. Let this cup pass from me,” she reportedly begged. “I don’t have the heart.”Just three months earlier, the nanny had to tell the children that their brother Patrick, born prematurely, had died. But Auchincloss insisted that Caroline needed to be told before she heard the news from her friends.JFK Jr. with his father at the White House at age two.Shaw broke the news to John Jr. first, telling him, “Your father has gone to look after Patrick.” But the little boy was too young to fully comprehend, asking Shaw if his father had taken his big plane with him, then wondering when he would come back.She tucked John Jr. into bed, then entered Caroline’s room. In her 1966 memoir, White House Nannie: My Years with Caroline and John Kennedy Jr., Shaw recounted, “I sat on the edge of [Caroline]’s bed [that night] and felt tears well up in my eyes. Caroline looked up at me. ‘What’s the matter, Miss Shaw? Why are you crying?’ I took her in my arms. ‘I can’t help crying, Caroline, because I have some very sad news.’ Then I told her.”Caroline with her father aboard the yacht Honey Fitz off the coast of Hyannis, Massachusetts at age five, August 25, 1963.Manchester’s book offers additional details of the moment, with Shaw reportedly telling the little girl:“Your father has been shot. They took him to a hospital, but the doctors couldn’t make him better. So your father has gone to heaven to look after Patrick. Patrick was so lonely in heaven. He didn’t know anybody there. Now he has the best friend anyone could have.” She paused. “God gives each of us a thing to do. God is making your father a guardian angel over you and your mother, and his light will shine down on you always. His light is shining now, and he’s watching you, and he’s loving you, and he always will.”President Kennedy and family. President Kennedy, Mrs. Kennedy, John F. Kennedy, Jr., Caroline Kennedy.Caroline buried her face in the pillow, crying. Shaw sat beside her on the bed, patting her head until she fell asleep, then she tiptoed out of the room and settled into a rocking chair in her own room. There she sat, in the dark, keeping her ears pealed for the slightest sound from either child as the night wore on.Shaw, who spent seven and a half years with the Kennedy family — starting just days before Caroline was born — would retire and return to her native England in 1965. It would be a great loss for the family. Shaw was described by her nephew, Ian Roberts, as “one of the classic English nannies,” a woman with a firm hand and a ready smile. But she was more than just the children’s governess.The Kennedy family in Hyannis Port, Massachusetts, in 1963.She “was probably their best friend at the time,” Jackie’s former Secret Service agent, Clint Hill, told People in 2015. “I nursed the children from the cradle and came to love them just as if they had been my own,” Shaw wrote in White House Nannie. “Happily, they repaid me with their own love and affection.”Shaw would see Kennedys once more after her retirement. In 1965, Jackie took Caroline and John Jr. to England for the dedication of a memorial to their late father, and the children accompanied their former nanny on a short trip to the quaint coastal town of Sheerness, where Shaw resided with her sister Hettie.This would be their last time together, but they would keep in touch through letters over the years. Adams died in 1988, at age 85.Read another story from us: Jacqueline Kennedy’s packing list for tragic Dallas trip becomes publicIn her memoir, Shaw noted that she had worked for “all sorts of people and their children in many parts of the world.” But the Kennedy children held a special place in her heart. “I have a deeper love for them than all the others,” Shaw told The Daily Times-News in 1966, “perhaps because we have seen so much together.”
The Sound of Music is one of the most popular films of all time. Beloved by generations and still gaining new fans to this day, the 1965 film was directed by Robert Wise and starred Julia Andrews and Christopher Plummer in the lead roles. It was an adaptation of a stage musical of the same name from 1959 and based on the real-life story of Maria von Trapp, with the film and musical being fictionalized retellings of Maria’s memoir: The Story of the Trapp Family Singers.The film charts the story of Maria herself, played by Julie Andrews, as she arrives at the home of an old naval officer to become the governess of his seven children. Maria is carefree and joyful, while the officer, Captain Georg von Trapp, is rather miserable and strict.Christopher Plummer and Julie Andrews on location in Salzburg, 1964Over time, however, Maria’s infectious enthusiasm and love of music wins the day. She and the captain fall in love and ultimately get married.It’s a fantastic film that won no less than five Academy Awards and went on to become one of the highest grossing films of the era, breaking and setting numerous records in the process.Georg von Trapp on the bridge of a U-5 of the Austro-Hungarian Navy, 1915Strangely enough, however, the woman who made it all possible, Maria von Trapp herself, was not even invited to the opening night. As reported by The Telegraph, Maria wondered why she hadn’t received an invitation and took it up with the producers, but was simply told that there were no seats left.This must have come as quite a shock to Maria and is seen by many as a highly discourteous act on the part of the film’s producers. After all, without Maria’s original memoir, the film would never have been made in the first place, so it would only seem natural that she be present for the very first screening. She was, however, invited to the opening night of the 1959 stage musical, composed by Richard Rodgers with lyrics from Oscar Hammerstein II.Maria von TrappMaking the story even stranger is the fact that the producers had previously shown Maria a lot of respect, even providing her with a cameo appearance in the film itself. During the song “I Have Confidence”, Maria can be seen walking by an archway.She was accompanied by her real life daughter Rosmarie, as well as Barbara, the daughter of Werner von Trapp, and this particular instance is regarded as one of the more notable movie cameo appearances in cinematic history.Had Maria been invited to the premier of The Sound of Music, however, she might have been a little disappointed with the critical response. Initial reviews of the film were quite poor, with the likes of Judith Crist, writing for the New York Herald Tribute, calling it an “icky sticky” picture aimed at “the five to seven set”, while Bosley Crowther of The New York Times took issue with what he saw as “romantic nonsense” in the film’s plot and the “artificial roles” of the children.The front of the Austrian-style main building of the von Trapp Family Lodge. Photo by Royalbroil CC BY-SA 4.0Over time, however, the film proved to be a smash success. It now consistently features in lists of the best movies ever made, is regarded as a timeless classic by many leading movie critics, and has a special place in the hearts of millions of viewers.Read another story from us: Major Movies which Caused Major Real-Life HeadachesIt made over $280 million worldwide, earned numerous awards, is still being talked about today, and it was all based on the true story of Maria von Trapp, for whom the producers seemingly forgot to set aside a ticket on the opening night.
The pirate cemetery of Madagascar is the final resting place for various buccaneers, corsairs and sea marauders who amassed unimaginable wealth by robbing merchants across the oceans during the Golden Age of Piracy in the 17th and 18th century. So, driven by the “work hard, play hard” motto, the pirates were keen on creating their own holiday resorts tucked comfortably in some of the most reclusive islets on Earth, where they hosted flamboyant parties, shared their loot, planned further actions and rested in the shade of coconut trees.Among numerous hideouts of such nature, Île Sainte-Marie, or Saint Mary’s Island, was the absolute gem. Located off the coast of Madagascar, the fourth largest island in the world, it was basically non-existent on the maps of the time until 1731, when it was marked as “Pirate Island”, due to its unmistakable reputation.For around 100 years, Ile Sainte-Marie was the off-season home of an estimated 1,000 pirates. Photo by Antony CC BY-SA 2.0The location was also conveniently close to the British East India Company’s trading route, making it an ideal retreat after a successful ransack. With local women interested in their tales and more than enough food resources, for the pirates who operated in the Indian Ocean, this was the place to be.The calm waters around the island enabled safe approach, while numerous inlets and bays provided excellent hideouts in which entire ships could slip in and remain undetected.The cemetery of past pirates at Ile Ste-Marie (St. Mary’s Island), Madagascar. Photo by JialiangGao CC BY-SA 4.0From the Bay of Bengal, all the way to Cape of Good Hope, Île Sainte-Marie gathered infinite amounts of looted wealth, so it comes as no surprise that to this day many lagoons and coves around the island are considered to hold treasures buried by some of the most infamous pirate captains.Pirates of the likes of Adam Baldrige, who was one of the founders of the Île Sainte-Marie settlement, as well as legendary William Kidd, whose exploits were featured in many stories and myths, including one written by Edgar Alan Poe himself, all held claims of burying their retirement funds somewhere around the island.Then there was Olivier Levasseur, who in 1720 set up his operation on Île Sainte-Marie, and Henry Every, both of whom made attempts to rob or capture ships belonging to the Great Moghuls of India.Pirate Grave, Île Sainte-Marie. Photo by Antony Stanley CC BY-SA 2.0The tales of riches belonging to the Moghuls attracted pirates from all parts of the world, for their heavily packed, albeit well armed, ships traveling to Mecca. These vessels were a golden grail of piracy.All of the captains who enjoyed respect within the pirate community had their own parcels of land on which huts were built to house the crews. Each crew displayed their distinguishable flag in front of or atop their wooden huts.Sainte-Marie, Madagascar pirate cemetery. Photo by Lemurbaby CC BY-SA 3.0The captains, on the other hand, most often resided separately, on the Île aux Forbans, an even smaller islet located in the bay of Ambodifotatra, which is the island’s largest settlement to date.The “Pirate Paradise” would serve as an on and off resort for a period of some 100 years, although it was most actively used between 1691 and 1719.The cemetery of past pirates at Ambodifototra (St. Mary’s Island), Madagascar. Photo by Michipanero CC BY 3.0Since the island was so favored by pirates, becoming their home away from home, those who fell during raids or died from other causes were often buried in the cemetery that remains the only testimony of their presence on the island.The graveyard on Île Sainte-Marie still hosts a number of tombstones marked with skulls and bones, resting peacefully in the shade of palm trees.The pirate cemetery is a popular tourist destination. Photo by Lemurbaby CC BY-SA 3.0The cemetery is located on a hilltop, overlooking the horizon of never-ending water, symbolically facing towards the direction which the ones buried would set sail and embark on their adventures.Urban legend suggests that even William Kidd found his eternal resting place inside a large, black tomb on the island. According to the myth, Kidd was buried sitting upright as punishment for his crimes — although he was actually arrested, tried, executed (twice, for the first attempt failed) and buried in England on May 23, 1701.William Kidd, privateer, 18th century portrait by Sir James ThornhillHis ship, on the other hand, does lay on the seabed near the island. Since it was re-discovered in 2000, it has become one of Île Sainte-Marie’s favorite tourist attractions.Read another story from us: How Pirates Met Their Final JusticeEven though pirates haven’t lived there for quite some time now, the pirate cemetery of Madagascar and its surrounding islands remain a popular location for adventure-seekers around the world, both due to its vibrant history, as well as natural beauty.
The Eagles are champs and Super Bowl MVP Nick Foles is now an eternal Philadelphia legend, but Foles’ long road to glory was paved in adversity and disappointment.No single moment sums up the down period of his career than a scene from Hard Knocks where then Rams head coach Jeff Fisher called him to cut him after the team drafted Jared Goff with the first overall pick in the 2016 draft.To be fair to Fisher, he wasn’t the only one who gave up on Foles, but that his inept tenure with the Rams is still producing new video evidence of bad decisions a year after he was canned is pretty funny.Foles is on top of the world now, but this is professional rock bottom.Nick foles could of easily given up in this moment when Jeff fisher called him to tell him he’s being released by the rams but he kept his faith didn’t give up and is now a super bowl mvp… truly amazing. pic.twitter.com/X0cMjH6dW7— Chris Rye (@Chrisrye88) February 5, 2018
Antonio Brown and the Steelers went public with their intention to part ways yesterday after Brown met with Steelers’ President Art Rooney. Brown has probably turned some teams off with his erratic social media behavior and bridge burning approach to get his way, but Colin thinks the Packers should roll the dice and get Aaron Rodgers the best weapon of his career.The Packers need more firepower, especially with the Bears now the team to beat in the NFC North, and it would be stupid for Green Bay to waste the final good years of a generational quarterback talent like Rodgers by penny pinching and surrounding him with sub par offensive talent. The fit for Brown also works because he gets another elite QB talent to get him the ball. As the Amari Cooper trade to Dallas already showed, a shotgun receiver/QB marriage can work and produce big-time results in today’s NFL.With two first round picks, Green Bay has the assets to unload one and get it done. They should.