Unlike in classic hypercubes, M-hypercubes contain two types of nodes: state nodes, which are embedded on the “joints” of the M-hypercubes; and transmission nodes, which are embedded in the middle of the links between state nodes. In one arrangement, the researchers embedded two state nodes on each joint, both representing a single state. Each node can be turned on or off, with the transmission nodes having the ability to isolate parts of the cube from other parts when in the off state.Depending on the number of states required by an operation, the M-hypercube can be expanded by adding extra dimensions (which contain more nodes) or constricted by reducing its dimensions. For example, if only four states are required, the logic architecture would be a 2-D hypercube (a square), which has four state nodes. In general, the number of state nodes in a hypercube is 2m, with m being the M-hypercube’s dimensionality.“We might construct M-hypercubes of dimensions greater than three in three-dimensional space if we allow the communication linkages at the nodes of M-hypercubes to not be mutually perpendicular,” Lee explained. For logic operations that require many states, the researchers propose a method that could reduce the dimensions of the M-hypercube by essentially decomposing the hypercube into two lower-dimensional M-hypercubes, connected in parallel. If needed, these two M-hypercubes could themselves be decomposed into still less complex M-hypercubes, reducing the number of state nodes required per state. In another arrangement, Lee and Hook combined an M-hypercube with an N-hypercube, resulting in what they call an “MN-cell.” Due to its versatility, the device could serve as a building block for designing sequential nano logic gates of any size and complexity.More information: Lee, Samuel C. and Loyd R. Hook IV. “Logic and Computer Design in Nanospace.” IEEE Transactions on Computers, TC-0156-0406. To be published.Copyright 2008 PhysOrg.com. All rights reserved. This material may not be published, broadcast, rewritten or redistributed in whole or part without the express written permission of PhysOrg.com. Hypercubes in two, three, four, and five dimensions. (Images from Wikipedia) Multi-dimensional structures called hypercubes may act as the building blocks for tomorrow’s nanocomputers – machines made of such tiny elements that they are dominated not by forces that we’re familiar with every day, but by quantum properties. Citation: Hypercubes Could Be Building Blocks of Nanocomputers (2008, April 1) retrieved 18 August 2019 from https://phys.org/news/2008-04-hypercubes-blocks-nanocomputers.html As Samuel Lee and Loyd Hook from the University of Oklahoma explain, microelectronic devices are continually getting smaller and faster, in accordance with Moore’s Law. Already, integrated circuits and transistors are reaching the nanometer scale, although they still operate based on the physical properties on the macro-scale. True nanoelectronics, the researchers explain, are not just scaled down microelectronics, but devices that will be dominated by quantum properties, and will therefore require new architectures and novel structures.“Compared to today’s microcomputers, the main advantages of future nanocomputers are higher circuit density, lower power consumption, faster computation speed and more parallel and distributed computing capabilities,” Lee told PhysOrg.com.For example, today’s integrated circuits process information in the form of a continual flow of electrons. Nano integrated circuits, however, may process individual electrons, reducing the scale and power consumption. Such circuits would require that nano logic devices be able to count single electrons, as well as the ability for parallel computing, reversibility, locality, and a three-dimensional architecture.To address these challenges, Lee and Hook have investigated hypercubes, which researchers have previously considered as elements of nanocomputers. In their study, which will be published in a future issue of IEEE Transactions on Computers, Lee and Hook propose a variant of the classic hypercube called the “M-hypercube” that could provide a higher-dimensional layout to support the three-dimensional integrated circuits in nanocomputers.The M-hypercube has a structure similar to a classic hypercube, which basically extends from a square to a cube to increasingly complex M-dimensional shapes. M-hypercubes (of any dimension) are composed of nodes and links. The nodes act as gates, receiving and passing electrons through, while the links act as the paths that electrons travel along. “The unique structure of hypercubes, including M-hypercubes, has been shown to be effective in parallel computing and communication networks and provides a unique ideal intrinsic structure which fulfills many of the needs of future nanocomputing systems,” Lee said. “These needs include massively parallel and distributed processing architecture with simple and robust communication linkages.” This document is subject to copyright. Apart from any fair dealing for the purpose of private study or research, no part may be reproduced without the written permission. The content is provided for information purposes only.
(PhysOrg.com) — Engineers at Panasonic will showcase their new reduced size methanol fuel cell at the Hydrogen Energy Advanced Technology Exhibition 2008 in Fukuoka, Kyushu, Japan. Japan’s most populated city will host the exhibit on October 22-24, 2008. Panasonic has been working on reducing the size and increasing the efficiency of its previously introduced fuel cell over the past eight-years. The new methanol fuel cell is about the size of a laptop battery. The fuel cell battery weighs approximately 11.29-ounces and can deliver an average of 10-watts of power with a maximum output of 20-watts. According to Panasonic, the new methanol fuel cell battery has the unique advantage of being able to run 20-hours utilizing 200cc methanol. When the fuel cell runs low on methanol a quick refueling takes a few minutes. Unlike lithium ion batteries, methanol fuel cells are viewed as more environmentally friendly. The only by-product is water and a slight amount of carbon dioxide. Panasonic does not have present plans to commercially distribute the methanol fuel cell for laptops and other electronic devices. Panasonic speculates that the new methanol fuel cell may be available in the commercial market by 2012. Recognizing the ever increasing need for “high accuracy fuel technology,” Panasonic believes the methanol fuel cell holds great promise for the commercial electronics market and will spend whatever time it takes to perfect the technology. Critics of the methanol fuel cell are concerned about the initial cost and maintenance. At this juncture in development, Panasonic has not stated what the cost will be for the methanol fuel cell. The concept of a battery with 20-hours of use and no hazardous by-products will definitely be taken into consideration when pricing it for market. Explore further Panasonic Fuel Cell Prototype for Mobile Devices. Image: Panasonic Panasonic Fuel Cell Prototype for Notebooks. Image: Panasonic NREL teams with industry to validate methanol fuel cell technology This document is subject to copyright. Apart from any fair dealing for the purpose of private study or research, no part may be reproduced without the written permission. The content is provided for information purposes only. Citation: Panasonic Engineers Introduce Methanol Fuel Cell Prototype (2008, October 22) retrieved 18 August 2019 from https://phys.org/news/2008-10-panasonic-methanol-fuel-cell-prototype.html
via i-Programmer Microsoft, PC makers to offer Azure cloud services Citation: Microsoft paper proposes using ‘cloud’ servers to heat homes (2011, July 26) retrieved 18 August 2019 from https://phys.org/news/2011-07-microsoft-paper-cloud-servers-homes.html (PhysOrg.com) — Microsoft has published a research paper that proposes installing servers used for cloud computing into homes and businesses, instead of in vast data centers. The idea being, that because such servers generate so much heat, why not use them to heat homes, instead of wasting even more energy by cooling the air in centralized locations. Explore further More information: © 2010 PhysOrg.com This document is subject to copyright. Apart from any fair dealing for the purpose of private study or research, no part may be reproduced without the written permission. The content is provided for information purposes only. The paper, “The Data Furnace: Heating Up with Cloud Computing “ published by Microsoft Research, in conjunction with Virginia University researchers, looks at the feasibility of selling “Data Furnaces” (DFs) to consumers, who would then benefit by having their winter heating bills reduced down to almost zero. The authors argue that the cost savings of doing so, for cloud computing companies, would be significant (they estimate from $280 to $324 a year per server.)The authors envision having DFs in the basements of homes all over the country, clustered around cites, of course, where the most demand for those servers exists. A customer would purchase a unit and have it installed in the basement, where it would heat the home, and could be used for other purposes as well, such as heating hot water or drying clothes. In such a small scale system, the author’s believe that an existing broadband connection could be used, thus no additional data transfer hardware or software would need to be installed. As part of their purchase, users would agree to replace filters and reset or turn serves on or off if and when needed. For users that live in northern parts of the country, such as around New York City or Chicago, cost savings could be dramatic. In the summer, the DF could either be turned off, or the heat vented outside.Larger systems with more CPUs could be installed in business buildings large and small, allowing for more computing power for the cloud company, and free or reduced heating bills for the hosts. If such a system were to be put in place, the authors argue that storage and computing power for cloud applications could increase without an increase in electrical demand (which they say was 3% of total US demand as of 2006) because the electricity used to run the DFs would be offset by the reduction in electricity used to normally heat the homes. They also point out that such a distributed system would result in faster access times for customers since the servers would be located near the customers.One issue not addressed in the paper is the variable throughput that users of home-based broadband have become accustomed to; an issue that while annoying to customers, might cause havoc with cloud based applications. Presumably, if this were to occur, the server company would have to foot the bill for a dedicated T1 line, or something similar. Other issues that would have to be resolved would center around data security, maintenance and what to do during power outages.
ORNL finding has materials scientists entering new territory (Phys.org)—At its heart, photovoltaics research is about finding materials with specific properties that make them good at absorbing sunlight and converting it into electricity. The best photovoltaics materials are semiconductors that have optimal band gap values ranging from 1-1.6 eV, allowing them to absorb particular portions of the solar spectrum depending on the value of the band gap. In a new study, materials scientists have synthesized and characterized a new semiconductor material that consists of an atomically thin (0.7-nm) layer of selenium and molybdenum that has an ideal band gap for solar harvesting and optoelectronics applications, and also exhibits some unique behavior. More information: Sefaattin Tongay, et al. “Thermally driven crossover from indirect toward direct bandgap in 2D semiconductors: MoSe2 versus MoS2.” Nano Letters. DOI: 10.1021/nl302584w http://pubs.acs.org/doi/abs/10.1021/nl302584w Comparison of the photoluminescence of different thicknesses of molybdenum diselenide. The single-layer sample has the highest photoluminescence value due to its direct band gap. Image credit: Tongay, et al. ©2012 American Chemical Society Copyright 2012 Phys.org All rights reserved. This material may not be published, broadcast, rewritten or redistributed in whole or part without the express written permission of PhysOrg.com. MoSe2, like most other transition-metal chalcogenides, has an indirect band gap in bulk form and a direct band gap as a two-dimensional single layer. Typically, in order to transform the indirect band gap to a direct band gap, a single layer must be physically isolated from a piece of bulk material. Explore further In the new study, the researchers found that they could switch the indirect band gap in a few-layered piece of MoSe2 to a direct band gap simply by increasing the temperature. As the researchers explain, increasing the temperature to 100 °C (212 °F) causes the multiple layers of the material to thermally decouple from each other due to thermal expansion of the space between layers. Essentially, the multiple layers each act as individual layers with direct band gaps. Decoupling lifts the degeneracy so the material becomes more direct band and more luminescent.Since many transition-metal chalcogenides possess an indirect band gap in bulk form and become direct as a single layer, it might be expected that other materials could also have their band gaps switched by changing the temperature. However, when the scientists tested a similar material, molybdenum disulfide (MoS2), they found that, even though increasing the temperature expanded the interlayer distance as it did in MoSe2, its band gap remained indirect in the few-layer form, unlike in the case of MoSe2.This difference is due to MoSe2 having a smaller difference (about half) between the values of its indirect band gap and direct band gap compared with that of MoS2. A larger energy difference for MoS2 means that its band gap is far from degenerate and its layers cannot be thermally decoupled from the optical point of view; the only way to change the band gap to direct would be to physically isolate a single layer from the bulk.So far, it seems that MoSe2 is the only material that changes its band gap type due to a change in temperature. However, the researchers think that there are other two-dimensional materials with almost degenerate indirect and direct band gap values that may behave in a similar way.”MoSe2 is special in the sense that its indirect and direct band gap values are already close in value, and a small increase in temperature was enough to slightly decouple the layers from each other and push it towards the direct band gap regime,” said coauthor Sefaattin Tongay of the University of California, Berkeley.The ability to control the band gap of MoSe2, along with its attractive 1.5 eV direct band gap in single-layer form, makes the material appealing for applications including solar energy conversion in single-junction solar cells, LEDs, optoelectronic devices, and photoelectrochemical cells. MoSe2 membranes may also be used to functionalize the surface of other materials to form efficient solar harvesting structures.”Currently, we are designing functional two-dimensional semiconductors and scouting what these materials can offer,” Tongay said. “We want to find applications and explore new physics in reduced dimensions.” AFM image of a single-layer molybdenum diselenide flake. Image credit: Tongay, et al. ©2012 American Chemical Society Journal information: Nano Letters The researchers, a team from the University of California, Berkeley; MIT; and the Chinese Academy of Sciences, have published their study in a recent issue of Nano Letters.”Here, we have isolated single layers of molybdenum diselenide (MoSe2) and shown their promising band gap value of 1.5 eV for solar harvesting and possibly other optoelectronics applications,” coauthor Junqiao Wu, a professor at the University of California, Berkeley, told Phys.org. “According to the Shockley-Queisser limit for the theoretical maximum efficiency of solar cell semiconductors, semiconductors with band gaps between 1 and 1.6 eV have the greatest potential to form an efficient cell. This is because a wider band gap would be unable to absorb low-energy photons (and thus photocurrent would be low), and a narrower band gap would lose too many high-energy photons to heat (and thus photovoltage would be low). We are within this range in the single-layer limit.”In addition to its appealing band gap, MoSe2 is also attractive because of another unusual property: it has almost degenerate direct and indirect band gaps in the few-layer limit, i.e., the direct and indirect band gaps have almost the same energy in the few-layer limit. Although materials with both direct and indirect band gaps can absorb photons whose energy is near the band gap energy, materials with direct band gaps don’t allow photons to penetrate as far, which makes them better (and usually thinner) light absorbers than materials with indirect band gaps. Citation: New two-dimensional semiconductor has ideal band gap for solar harvesting (2012, November 2) retrieved 18 August 2019 from https://phys.org/news/2012-11-two-dimensional-semiconductor-ideal-band-gap.html This document is subject to copyright. Apart from any fair dealing for the purpose of private study or research, no part may be reproduced without the written permission. The content is provided for information purposes only.
More information: S. A. Price et al. How predation shaped fish: the impact of fin spines on body form evolution across teleosts, Proceedings of the Royal Society B: Biological Sciences (2015). DOI: 10.1098/rspb.2015.1428AbstractIt is well known that predators can induce morphological changes in some fish: individuals exposed to predation cues increase body depth and the length of spines. We hypothesize that these structures may evolve synergistically, as together, these traits will further enlarge the body dimensions of the fish that gape-limited predators must overcome. We therefore expect that the orientation of the spines will predict which body dimension increases in the presence of predators. Using phylogenetic comparative methods, we tested this prediction on the macroevolutionary scale across 347 teleost families, which display considerable variation in fin spines, body depth and width. Consistent with our predictions, we demonstrate that fin spines on the vertical plane (dorsal and anal fins) are associated with a deeper-bodied optimum. Lineages with spines on the horizontal plane (pectoral fins) are associated with a wider-bodied optimum. Optimal body dimensions across lineages without spines paralleling the body dimension match the allometric expectation. Additionally, lineages with longer spines have deeper and wider body dimensions. This evolutionary relationship between fin spines and body dimensions across teleosts reveals functional synergy between these two traits and a potential macroevolutionary signature of predation on the evolutionary dynamics of body shape. Mudskipper fish may offer clues about development of tongue in land animals This document is subject to copyright. Apart from any fair dealing for the purpose of private study or research, no part may be reproduced without the written permission. The content is provided for information purposes only. The phylogenetic regression between log10 standard length and log10 body depth for families that have dorsal- and anal-fin spines (blue), and those that do not (red). Silhouettes illustrate some of the extremes of body shape, starting at the bottom left and going anti-clockwise: Chaenopsidae, Moringuidae, Nemichthyidae, Alepisauridae, Bramidae, Caproidae, Ephippidae and Cichlidae, with Mullidae in the center. Credit: Proceedings of the Royal Society B: Biological Sciences (2015). DOI: 10.1098/rspb.2015.1428 On land, many predators are able to use their mouths to rip or tear pieces of food from a prey’s carcass, and in some cases to chew it before swallowing—in the water however, things are not always so easy—many fish that feed on other fish are gape limited, that is, they must swallow their prey whole as they are not able to nibble or bite off chunks. This notion caused the researchers to wonder if such prey might have responded to such threats by evolving in a way that would make them more difficult to swallow whole. To test their idea they took measurements of specimens held in museums from 347 families of fish, looking at body shape and size and also the location, shape and size of fins and spines.In analyzing their results (using phylogenetic comparative methods) and looking for correlations, they found that spines on anal and dorsal fins tended to be more associated with fish with deeper bodies, and that fish with spines on horizontal fins tended to be more associated with wider bodies. They also found that for fish without spines, the optimal body dimensions tended to match allometric expectation, and that fish with longer spines tended to have deeper and wider bodies.Put another way, the trio claim their idea has merit—many prey fish appear to have evolved in ways that make it more difficult for them to be swallowed in one gulp, whether by becoming wider bodied or by developing spines that extend from fins to increase body dimensions that make things difficult or awkward for those looking to eat them. Citation: Relationship found between predation and the shape of prey fish body and spines (2015, November 12) retrieved 18 August 2019 from https://phys.org/news/2015-11-relationship-predation-prey-fish-body.html Explore further Journal information: Proceedings of the Royal Society B (Phys.org)—A trio of researchers with the University of California’s Department of Evolution and Ecology has found a predictable relationship between the size of predator fish mouths and the shape and spine characteristics of prey fish. In their paper published in the journal Proceedings of the Royal Society B, Samantha Price, Sarah Friedman, and Peter Wainright describe how they tested an idea they had about prey fish evolution being tied to the size of the predator fish mouth and what they found as a result. © 2015 Phys.org
© 2019 Science X Network Poison dart frog brains can hold a mental map This document is subject to copyright. Apart from any fair dealing for the purpose of private study or research, no part may be reproduced without the written permission. The content is provided for information purposes only. Citation: Brain parts involved in parenting in frogs revealed (2019, July 25) retrieved 18 August 2019 from https://phys.org/news/2019-07-brain-involved-parenting-frogs-revealed.html More information: Eva K. Fischer et al. The neural basis of tadpole transport in poison frogs, Proceedings of the Royal Society B: Biological Sciences (2019). DOI: 10.1098/rspb.2019.1084 A team of researchers from Stanford University, Harvard University, Centro Jambatu de Investigación y Conservación de Anfibios and East Carolina University has isolated the brain regions involved in poison dart frog parenting. In their paper published in Proceedings of the Royal Society B, the group describes their study of three types of poison dart frogs and what they learned. Journal information: Proceedings of the Royal Society B The researchers began their study by noting that most frogs lay eggs and walk away, leaving their young to fend for themselves—but three particular types of poison dart frogs are different—they stick around and help their young survive. With one type, the mother cares for the young; with another, it is the male that does the job, and the parents of a third type work together. The researchers thought this intriguing characteristic might help them figure out which parts of the frog brain were involved in parental care-taking. They captured and killed 25 frogs while they were engaged in carrying their young from their hatching site on land to the water. The researchers assumed that brain regions involved in parental care would be lit up during this activity. The team immediately froze the brains to preserve their neural state, then looked at brain slices under a microscope.The researchers report that in all of the frogs caught mid-carry, the preoptic parts of their brains were lit up. Comparison with their mates and other frogs showed this was a unique situation. The researchers note that their finding was not a surprise, as preoptic parts of the brain firing during parental behavior has been observed in other vertebrates, including mammals. The researchers suggest that such similarities between vastly different types of creatures indicate that parenting behavior is likely quite ancient.The researchers note that the medial pallium in the frogs was also active. It is a region in the frog brain that is similar to the hippocampus in mammals, and is involved in memory processing. The researchers suggest the frogs were using memory maps to navigate the course between hatching sites on land to the nearest water source. The team plans to continue their research by testing to see if they can turn parental behavior on and off by stimulating brain regions. Credit: CC0 Public Domain Explore further
It’s one technique of cooking that completely brings out the flavour of a dish. Which explains why clay pot cooking isn’t limited to just one region on the map. Dating back to ancient Roman times, clay pot cooking is popular in Europe, Africa, southeast and east Asia. In India, everyone from Tamilians to Malayalis, Awadhis, Punjabis and Kashmiris, they all have their own form of the cooking technique. Typically used in the villages, this is done using traditional clay pots called Also Read – ‘Playing Jojo was emotionally exhausting’chattis to cook on slow fire for a few hours. The food inside cooks in its own juices. The juices are sealed inside the pot till the time it is completely dry and therefore, cooked! Food cooked in a clay pot is not just flavourful, but it is also low fat. So there, one more incentive. That is why when Zune in Hilton Janakpuri wanted to bring alive that magic in its Indian restaurant, we thought it should be worthwhile travelling all the way to Janakpuri to check out what they have managed to achieve. Also Read – Leslie doing new comedy special with Netflix‘Clay pot cooking is a technique of cooking food in an unglazed clay pot which has been soaked in water so as to release steam during the cooking process,’ says Mohd Irfan, Chef de cuisine. ‘Typically, an unglazed clay pot is submerged for 15 to 30 minutes to absorb water before cooking, then filled with the food and placed inside an oven. The food inside the clay pot loses little of its moisture because it is surrounded by steam, creating a tender, flavourful dish,’ he adds. At the restaurant, there was a wide variety of dishes to choose from, both vegetarian and non vegetarian. So one could pick and choose from traditional dishes like Haandi ki bhuni tangdi, Patthar ke palak kebab, Dal paneer ki tikki, Kachchi handi ka saag, Kachhi handi ka Ghee dum murg, Kachchi handi ka hara dhaniya gosht, Dum ki malika e dariya, Ghuti chana dal, Chooza biryani, Dum bhujiya and Pyaz dhaniya ki bhuni gobhi. For desserts, there was Haandi ki kheer and Haandi ka palak halwa. While the idea was interesting, we found some of the dishes to be a little unremarkable. Or may be it just gets better with time!DETAILAt: Zune, Hilton New Delhi, Janakpuri District Centre Complex Phone: 4123 412Meal for two: Rs 1,600 + taxes
The second edition of Dastkar’s Asia Bazaar was organised in the Capital in association with Delhi tourism that started off on 5 September at Nature Bazaar Venue. The bazaar featured craftspeople and crafts organisations from Pakistan, Nepal, Afghanistan, Maldives, Kyrgyzstan, Tajikistan, Uzbekistan, and their Indian counterparts to share and showcase talents, techniques and products. The event that ended up on 14 September brought together the common strands of centuries-old cultural and craft heritage. Also Read – ‘Playing Jojo was emotionally exhausting’The venture provides an opportunity for visiting delegates, customers and participants from across the borders, to learn about each others’ cultures and traditions and understand the variations of their skills being practiced in other countries. It also gives artisans an avenue to study fashion trends from across borders. It creates a bridge where they can interact and expand their ties with neighboring countries beyond business and can gauge market feedback. Also Read – Leslie doing new comedy special with NetflixThis year the bazaar included – Kilim woolen rugs from Afghanistan, hand-woven dhurries by traditional weavers from Telangana and Uttar Pradesh, craftswomen from Gujarat embroidering Kutchi and suf meeting their counterparts from Sind and Afghanistan, Kanthaand sujni embroidery linking India and Pakistan, weaving traditions from Nepal meeting those from Kotpad, Odisha, Kutch and Gujarat. Asia Bazaar also brought the nomadic carpets, felted wool home accessories and urbane silk Ikats and brocades craftspeople from Uzbekistan, Tajikistan and Kirgizstan, to complement the hand-knotted rugs and crewel embroidery from Kashmir, and applique from Gujarat and Karnataka. It also featured folk paintings from Madhya Pradesh,West Bengal and Rajasthan.
Tabula Rasa, the solo mixed media art exhibition by renowned artist, Shivani Pandey, was inaugurated on 18 November by Chief Guests Tine Staermose Director, Decent Work Team, South Asia and Country Office-India, International Labour Organization and Dr. Kalyan Kumar Chakravarty, Chairman, Lalit Kala Akademi, at the Palm Court Gallery, India Habitat Centre, in the Capital. Satish Upadhyaya, President, Delhi State, Bharatiya Janata Party accompanied by his wife Arti, later joined the ceremony and saw all the exhibits. Also Read – ‘Playing Jojo was emotionally exhausting’Speaking on the occasion, Staermose said, ‘A beautiful exhibition! What an honour to be your Chief Guest at this important day for you. Your curious and free spirit is so inspiring’. Chairman Lalit Kala Akedemi, Dr. Chakravarty also spoke about the inner journey of the soul, which was beautifully depicted by the artworks. He drew a parallel between the civilizations of the world and talked about the richness of Indian art and philosophy. Art and Satish Upadhyaya were delighted to express their sentiments, ‘Wonderful journey of the Artist, expressed in more wonderful art form!’ Also Read – Leslie doing new comedy special with NetflixThe artist Shivani Pandey, herself spoke about the importance of the Tabula Rasa, the blank state of mind that is so important to be reached, before the mind goes on a creative high.The theme and title of the exhibition, which was on up to 20 November is Tabula Rasa, for a new beginning! Tabula Rasa in Latin means a clear slate, and originates from the Roman tabula or wax tablet used for notes, which was blanked by heating the wax and then smoothening it, to give a tabula rasa. In Psychology, it relates to the theory that at birth the (human) mind is a ‘blank slate’ without rules for processing data, and that data is added and rules for processing are formed solely by one’s sensory experiences. And so in order to reach for his goals and desires, despite the setbacks that one has faced, one needs to clear his mind to reach a tabula rasa and start afresh. In this series, I am exhibiting pictures those describe the meaning of Tabula Rasa, ‘before it is reached’ and ‘after it is reached’ in the human mind.The artist, Shivani Pandey, is an international travel writer/ photographer having to credit published works in national and international magazines, much appreciated for their sensitivity of portrayal and depiction of intensity of life and emotion.
While non-book readers discover that it is an easier way to know the story, experience the plot whilst munching on popcorns and sipping fuzzy drinks; for book readers it is time for anxiety attacks. Haven’t you ever experienced the creeping fear that the book you have just finished reading, the one you loved till the last pages and you held the plot close to your heart, will one day be made into a terrible movie? As any avid book reader will probably know only a few of these book to film adaptations are able to arouse the same feelings as the book. Also Read – ‘Playing Jojo was emotionally exhausting’While the Harry Potter movies were passable (though, how could you leave out Peeves? or how can one mess up Voldemort’s death scene?), and movies like Gone with the Wind (1939) did reestablish my faith in cinema, but then something like The Mortal instruments: City of Bones (2013) made me curl up in bed and weep.With Hunger Games Mockingjay Part I just released, I am half dreading, half anticipating watching the movie. The first two films were pretty amazing, and one of the best thing about the film series is the casting. Jennifer Lawrence is extraordinary as Katniss Everdeen, the leading lady. The male leads are equally good and the film establishes the dystopia that the author Suzanne Collins wanted you to experience.It may be safe to say that the movie will not be disappointing considering the preceding two in the series and a fair review can be done only after one has watched the movie, the reader in me has her fingers crossed. Between The Covers is a weekly column on reading up and rating down